Canadian military aid to Ukraine in 2022

Analysis and Commentary, Conventional Weapons, Featured, News

Updated May 9, 2022

In response to Russia’s February invasion of Ukraine, Canada has announced successive shipments of military goods to the Ukrainian government. As of mid-May 2022, the value of all committed transfers was in excess of $150-million, with military aid worth a further $500-million proposed in Canada’s 2022 federal budget. The volume and speed of these government-to-government transfers, conducted by the Department of National Defence (DND), are unprecedented in recent Canadian history.

Canada’s arms control obligations

The Canadian Export and Import Permits Act (EIPA) and the international Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) oblige Canadian officials to authorize the export of military goods on a case-by-case basis. The authorization process requires that all proposed exports be subjected to a substantial risk test to determine the likelihood that a proposed export may contribute to any of the negative consequences listed in the ATT. These include, inter alia, undermining peace and security, and facilitating violations of international humanitarian and human rights law. If such risks exist and cannot be mitigated, an export cannot be authorized and the goods cannot be transferred.

One of the principles of the ATT is to prevent the unintended and illicit diversion of weapons systems. According to Article 11, Canadian officials must proactively seek ways to mitigate the risk of diversion when authorizing the transfer of military goods. It is well-established that the threat of diversion is increased during conflict, a consideration that Canadian officials should include in their risk assessment.

The overwhelming majority of Canadian arms exports are authorized by Global Affairs Canada. Government-to-government transfers, on the other hand, are authorized by DND through a parallel process. Although this process is broadly based upon the ATT, and includes assessments to evaluate “both the recipient and the risks of an arms transfer,” its precise scope and standards are unclear. DND has stated that it requires end-use certificates when exporting military aid, but has not clarified the extent to which end-use is monitored after the transfer takes place.

Article 5 of the ATT requires States Parties to implement treaty obligations in a consistent, objective, and non-discriminatory manner. This means that all government bodies involved in the trade and transfer of weapons must employ uniform standards and processes.

What follows is a list of military exports to Ukraine that have been publicly reported since January 2022. This list will be updated as new transfers are announced.

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Canada’s Government-to-Government Military Transfers to Ukraine (beginning in January 2022)
ANNOUNCED DELIVERED

EQUIPMENT

VALUE (CAD) NOTES SOURCES
Jan 26 Feb 3 Non-lethal military goods, including bullet-proof vests and night-vision goggles     National Post, Jan 26; Global Affairs Canada, Feb 4
Feb 14 Feb 19 (1st shipment);  Feb 23 (2nd  shipment) C6 and C9 machine guns, pistols, carbines, .50-calibre sniper rifles, 60-millimetre mortars, thermal imaging binoculars, cameras, scopes, approximately 1.5-million rounds of ammunition $7.8-million First Canadian shipment of lethal military goods Global Affairs Canada, February 14; Ottawa Citizen, Feb 15
Feb 27   Helmets, body armour, gas masks, and night vision gear $25-million   Global Affairs Canada, Feb 28; CBC, Feb 27
Feb 28   At least 100 Carl Gustaf M2 recoilless rifles, accessories and scopes, 2,000 rounds of 84mm ammunition   Transferred on two C-130J tactical airlift aircraft. Sourced from Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) inventories Ottawa Citizen, Feb 28; Global Affairs Canada, Feb 28
Mar 1   1,600 fragmentation vests and 390,000 individual meal kits     Global News, Mar 1; Global Affairs Canada, Mar 3
Mar 3   4,500 M-72 Light Anti-Armour Weapons (LAW) and up to 7,500 hand grenades   From CAF inventories Globe and Mail, Mar 3; Global Affairs Canada, Mar 3
Mar 3   Funding to acquire satellite images $1-million   Global Affairs Canada, Mar 3; Space News, Mar 9
Mar 8 ~ Late Mar Unspecified military equipment, 30-40 MX-15D electro-optical/infra-red (EO/IR) sensors for uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) $50-million Canadian government procuring from suppliers Global News, Mar 9; Ottawa Citizen, Mar 9; Global News, Apr 14
Apr 19 ~ Mid Apr (M777 155mm howitzers and ammunition) Four M777 155mm howitzers, M982 Excalibur precision-guided ammunition and other unspecified ammunition; eight Senator armoured vehicles   M777 howitzers and ammunition sourced from CAF inventories; Canadian government procuring armoured vehicles from suppliers Reuters, Apr 19; Department of National Defence, Apr 22; CBC, Apr 22; Global News, Apr 26
May 8   18 MX-15D EO/IR sensors, high-resolution satellite imagery, small arms and ammunition, additional ammunition for M777 155mm howitzers $50-million   Office of the Prime Minister, May 8; Reuters, May 8

 

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