Working Paper 93-4
Brief to the Special Joint Committees on Canada’s Foreign and Defence Policies, May 1994
Canada’s future security increasingly relies on the creation of a just and sustainable international order. With the Cold War now over, Canada has an opportunity to replace its old military-dominated approach to security with a more appropriate post-Cold War security policy. This post-Cold War policy should focus on the root causes of global insecurity and armed conflict, in particular paying increased attention to three key strategies:
- War Prevention
- War Termination
* Canada should place its greatest emphasis on building the conditions for just and sustainable peace.
* Canada’s spending priorities should be adjusted to reflect this change in emphasis: the Canadian “security budget” should focus less on military force and more on non-military measures that encourage just and environmentally sustainable economic development, human rights and democracy.
* A more balanced “security budget” might allocate 50% to military measures and 50% to non-military measures. A reasonable budget for fiscal year 1999-2000 might be $7.6 billion for the Department of National Defence (DND), $1.9 billion for the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (FAIT), and $5.6 billion for Official Development Assistance (ODA). This post-Cold War security budget would be 5% smaller than the current security budget, but it would be better balanced and would enable Canada for the first time to meet its longstanding goal of allocating 0.7% of GDP to ODA.
* Canada should increase its efforts to prevent war in regions where the failure to build peace has led to imminent threat of armed hostilities.
* Key elements of a war prevention strategy include:
- increased use of preventive diplomacy, including “citizen diplomacy” efforts;
- further development of mechanisms for the peaceful resolution of conflict;
- development of nonviolent security measures; and
- greater use of disarmament and arms control measures to reduce both the opportunity and the need to resort to military force (e.g., arms control/disarmament agreements, military budget reduction measures, and arms transfer controls).
* Canada should encourage greater global restraint in arms transfers and ensure that its own arms transfer controls are sufficient to prevent Canadian arms exports from undermining war prevention efforts.
* Canada should encourage greater use of peacemaking diplomacy and other non-military measures to terminate wars already being fought.
* Key elements of a war termination strategy include:
- increased use of peacemaking diplomacy (e.g., special UN representatives, externally sponsored peace talks, appropriate levels of economic and political sanctions, arms embargos); and
- use of military force for
- support of humanitarian efforts, and
- limited enforcement operations to protect the vulnerable and restore order in zones of disorder or low-level conflict.
* The overall goal of military intervention should be to protect or restore a political peacemaking process, not to force a particular outcome.
* The international role of the Canadian Forces should be limited to peacekeeping, humanitarian, and limited enforcement operations, and the structure and budget of the Canadian Forces should be reduced accordingly.