Overview of the Challenges to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan

Tasneem Jamal

Alfred Lokuji

Though entering a period of peace, Sudan remains in a highly unstable state. The three protocols in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) – Power Sharing, Wealth Sharing and Security Arrangements – are inherently problematic. The current government in Khartoum has promised to devolve power to regional governments, but it is not clear how much power they are willing to share. Furthermore, it is not clear whether Khartoum will share power with regions/groups not aligned with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army. The people of southern Sudan feel economically oppressed by citizens of the north; if development projects in the south are delayed, southerners may interpret this as a violation of the CPA. Finally, security arrangements constitute some of the greatest risks to peace, as troop deployment and movement can easily be misinterpreted if not carried out with complete transparency. Another obstacle to peace is ignorance of local dynamics. Local conflicts tend to escalate from the personal disagreements to family feuds to tribal skirmishes to national wars. Without effective peace monitoring at the local level, peace agreements on the national level will fail to find effect.  

This report is the first to result from Building Capacity for Sustainable Peace in the Sudan, a series of meetings hosted by Project Ploughshares and the Africa Peace Forum in Juba, Sudan. The meetings were part of a joint project meant to facilitate dialogue around the implementation of the CPA. The report, itself, aims to help the governments of north and south Sudan build conditions conducive to sustainable peace.

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